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What is immersion coffee brewing and infusion coffee brewing?
What are the differences between coffee immersion and infusion brewing?
Does each type of brewing technique brew a different tasting coffee?
In this post, we will explore both of the primary coffee brewing techniques.
What Does Immersion and Infusion Coffee Brewing Do?
The whole point of immersion and infusion coffee brewing is to extract the soluble components of the roasted coffee beans to make a tasty, aromatic, and flavorful coffee drink.
The components of coffee we extract through either immersion or infusion coffee brewing include…
- Acids (which give the coffee sour, sweet, and fruit flavors)
- Chlorogenic acid
- Coffee oils (which gives the coffee viscosity)
- Sugars (which give the coffee sweetness and viscosity)
- Other solubles
The extraction of all of these components from ground coffee beans is referred to as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS).
The efficiency of extraction of all of the components is usually calculated from the brew ratio and the TDS.
TDS determines the ‘strength’ of a coffee. Strong coffee has a higher TDS and weak coffee has a low TDS. However, the TDS doesn’t necessarily indicate a better coffee or a good extraction.
Brewing coffee is about achieving a consistent taste that explores the natural flavors of the coffee beans.
However, this is often difficult to achieve because there are many variables that affect the extraction of coffee beans with either immersion or infusion brewing methods.
These variables include the type of coffee bean, roast level of the coffee bean, coffee grind, water, temperature, and brew ratio.
Type of Coffee Bean
The two main types of coffee beans that are often quoted are robusta and arabica.
However, there are hundreds of varieties of coffee beans where each has unique flavor characteristics.
This is one reason that makes drinking coffee so interesting.
It is wonderful to explore this diversity of coffee bean taste and flavor.
Raw or green coffee beans are roasted before any brewing technique is used to extract the components.
Three roast levels of light, medium, and dark are often quoted in many posts but there can be many variations of roast.
The roast affects the look, flavor, and taste of the brewed coffee.
The first step for either immersion or infusion coffee brewing is to grind coffee beans to produce a range of grind sizes which are often labeled as fine, medium, or course. You choose the grind size to suit the brewing method.
Keeping the coffee grind consistent is important in brewing coffee by any method.
Coffee is brewed from ground coffee using either the immersion or infusion brewing methods.
Generally, a fine coffee grind requires a shorter brew time and a coarse coffee grind requires a longer brew time. The grind you choose will depend upon the brewing method you use. For example, a French Press (an immersion method) requires a coarse grind whereas an Espresso (an infusion method) requires a fine grind.
If you find that your coffee is thin, weak, or sour, then you may like to experiment with a finer grind for your brew method. In contrast, if your coffee is bitter or harsh you may like to experiment with a coarser grind.
The quality of the water you use is important for both immersion and infusion coffee brewing methods. We have discussed the importance of water in a previous post.
The goodcoffeeplace is a member of the Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) and we often refer to SCA guidelines.
The SCA says that the ideal temperature range for brewing coffee is 195°F–205°F (90.5°C–96°C) when water contacts ground coffee.
However, other people may have their preferences. For example, Aeropress Championship coffee brewing recipes usually require the temperature of water to be 176°F (80°C).
Regardless of the recommended temperature, you choose for your brew it is important that you keep the temperature stable throughout the brewing process. Variations in temperature cause inconsistent extraction of the coffee.
A coffee brew ratio is the ratio of ground coffee to water used with a brewing method.
The usual brew ratio for coffee brewed with an immersion or infusion method ranges from 1:15 to 1:18. For example, a ratio of 1:16 means that for 1 gram of ground coffee you add 16 grams of water.
Espresso has a different brew ratio because it uses pressure rather than gravity to extract coffee. The brew ratio for espresso is usually 1:2.
However, you can experiment with different brew ratios with various coffee brewing methods and choose the one that suits your taste.
Immersion and infusion coffee brewing techniques include a variety of coffee brewing methods that use slightly different techniques or coffee brewing gear.
So let us now look at the two primary brewing methods – immersion and infusion – in more detail.
What Is Immersion Coffee Brewing?
In immersion brewing, the coffee grounds are completely immersed in hot water (or cold water when making cold brew coffee).
The coffee grounds are left to steep in the hot (or cold) water for various times to extract all the essential components to produce a flavorsome coffee drink.
It’s like the coffee grinds are taking a bath!
When you use the immersion brewing method you usually first agitate the grounds and water for a little while and then let the coffee steep. This helps extract more of the coffee flavors.
Immersion coffee brewing methods may or may not use paper filters. However, most immersion methods will use a filter of some sort. The exceptions to this are cowboy coffee, Turkish coffee, and cupping where the grinds are usually left in the brew.
The following brewing methods use immersion to extract coffee from ground coffee beans.
- Clever Brewer
- French Press
- Cowboy Coffee
- Turkish Coffee (Cezve Brewer)
- Aeropress Brewer
- Siphon/Syphon. Also called vacuum coffee
- Cupping (coffee is left in the cup after water is added. This is used when judging coffee quality in a competition)
The brew time varies depending upon the brew method, grind size, and personal taste.
Usually, a French Press has a 4 minute brew time but a cold brew can be 36 hours or more.
Please read our similar posts on immersion brewing methods…
Advantages of Immersion Coffee Brewing
Some of the advantages of immersion coffee brewing include…
- Most devices use a filter to prevent coffee insoluble from passing into the final brew. A paper filter will also absorb and remove coffee oils from the final brew. This will result in a less viscous coffee and less ‘heavy’ mouthfeel.
- Less fiddly and easier to use
- Doesn’t require sophisticated brewing gear
- Filter paper can be used to remove some coffee oils
- Less need to closely monitor the brewing process compared with infusion brewing
- Consistency between brews provided you carefully choose an appropriate brew time and manual pressure if using manual pressure equipment such as a French Press
- Brews a bold, rich, and heavy coffee
- Easier to make cold brew coffee compared with the infusion method
- Can be diluted to taste if you have an initial bolder brew
Disadvantages of Immersion Coffee Brewing
Some of the disadvantages of immersion coffee brewing include…
- Incorrect choice of brew time. The coffee is left to steep in the water for too long or too little. This leads to over extraction or under extraction of the coffee respectively. Extraction slows down as the immersion time continues because the coffee gradually becomes more saturated and this prevents further solubles from leaving the coffee grinds.
- Some immersion methods such as French Press and the Aeropress use manual pressure to separate the coffee liquid from the coffee grinds. However, too much pressure may result in solids or fine grain solids passing through the filter and ending up in your cup.
- Inconsistent coffee brew if you use incorrect manual pressure or brew time
What Is Infusion Coffee Brewing?
In infusion brewing, the coffee grounds are not completely immersed but have hot (or cold) water passing over them.
This can also be called percolation. Percolation comes from the Latin word percolare, which means “to strain through.”
I consider infusion and percolation to be the same thing when we are talking about a technique to brew coffee from coffee grinds.
It’s like the coffee grinds are having a shower!
Infusion coffee brewing methods tend to be a more efficient extraction method compared with immersion coffee brewing methods. This is because the constant flow of water over the coffee grinds continues to extract coffee from the ground coffee.
Infusion methods need to use a filter to prevent the coffee grounds from being immersed in water.
The following brewing methods use the infusion method to extract coffee from ground coffee beans.
- Drip Coffee (usually automated coffee machines)
- Chemex (could also be considered pour-over coffee)
- Pour-over Coffee (also called Filter Coffee)
- Moka Pot
Please read similar posts on infusion coffee brewing methods…
In some infusion brewing methods, water is poured to just wet the grounds to bloom the coffee. The bloom is a consequence of air released from the wet coffee grounds.
This pre-infusion helps extract the flavors from the coffee grounds.
After the pre-infusion, more water is slowly added either automatically (as in an automatic drip coffee machine) or manually (as in a manual pour-over coffee maker).
Gravity pulls the water over and through the coffee grinds in the filter.
The clear filtered coffee is then collected in a carafe.
Gravity infusion coffee brewing results in a complex coffee with a lot of flavor and depth.
Brew times vary depending upon the brew method and personal taste. Generally, brew time varies from seconds (for an espresso) to minutes.
Espresso is a different coffee infusion method in that external pressure, not gravity, is used to infuse coffee grinds held in a portafilter basket of an espresso machine.
Advantages of Infusion Coffee Brewing
Some of the advantages of infusion coffee brewing include…
- More efficient extraction method compared with immersion coffee brewing methods. Essentially, infusion brewing doesn’t suffer from the saturation effect seen in immersion brewing because there is a constant stream of fresh water through the coffee grinds.
- You need a little less ground coffee per brew with infusion coffee brewing compared with immersion coffee brewing methods.
- The filter used in infusion brewing traps some of the coffee oils extracted from the coffee and prevents insoluble coffee grinds from entering the final cup of coffee
- Results in a clean, complex, slightly acidic, and flavorsome coffee
Disadvantages of Infusion Coffee Brewing
Some of the disadvantages of infusion coffee brewing include…
- Controlling the rate of water poured into the coffee. Poor control of water rate leads to poor extraction. Poor control stems from inexperience when using a gooseneck kettle for pour-over coffee, faulty drip mechanisms, or incorrect drip settings.
- Channeling. This is when water is misdirected into channels that form in the coffee bed. This is often the result of an uneven bed of coffee grinds. The general result is that the coffee is under-extracted.
- Temperature instability. A near-constant and stable temperature is needed for the best extraction of coffee. However, the size, shape, and material of the infusion coffee brewing method can cause temperature differentials which vary the temperature of extraction.
- Compacting coffee bed. If you use a coffee grind that is too fine then it may cause the coffee bed to compact, restrict water flow, lead to longer brewing times, or overflow from the coffee basket.
- Inconsistent brew. Given all the points above infusion, brewing is difficult to reproduce and may lead to inconsistent brews.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
What Type of Coffee Beans to use for Infusion and Immersion Coffee Brewing?
You could choose single-origin coffees with acidity for infusion coffee brewing and slightly darker and heavier coffees for immersion brewing.
We have mentioned some coffees that you can use for French Press in a previous post.
However, the choice of coffee bean really depends upon you.
You find the coffee that suits your taste for the brewing technique that you use.
Is a Coffee Percolator an Infusion or Immersion Coffee Brewing Technique?
Why isn’t a percolator in the list of immersion methods and not in the list of infusion or ‘percolation’ methods? Well, despite its name I think coffee from a percolator is more of an immersion method because the coffee grounds are steeped in recycled coffee. You can find more about this in my post which discusses the difference between a percolator and a Moka pot.
Which Brewing Method Should I Choose?
It is up to you!
Consider your taste preference, your coffee knowledge, your skills, your budget, and the time available.
Immersion brewing is usually easier and doesn’t require sophisticated coffee gearn.
Infusion brewing can give a more complex tasting coffee.
If you want to learn more about brewing coffee then don’t be afraid to experiment. You can get tips from posts here on goodcoffeeplace and on many other places on the internet.
You may also like to consider some online training with one of the best online training courses.
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