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Scientific research was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of coffee on arrhythmias, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality. The researchers found some surprising benefits of drinking coffee. The research was performed by Chieng et al 2022.
What Was The Aim Of The Research Scientists?
The scientists wanted to know if decaffeinated coffee, ground coffee, or instant coffee affected three diseases
- Arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)
- Cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiovascular disease is a group of diseases and problem conditions of the heart and blood vessels.
- Mortality (how long people lived)
What Did The Research Scientists Do?
They analyzed the information collected from a four-year study in the United Kingdom called Biobank.
In the Biobank survey, 502,521 people between 40 and 60 voluntarily answered questions about their lifestyle (including coffee consumption), and their medical conditions were recorded. These people were also followed up long-term to assess health outcomes.
In this research study, the scientists didn’t use the information for all 502,521 people because they excluded people that…
- withdrew from the UK Biobank
- did not provide ethnic background information
- did not provide information on their coffee intake, coffee type or tea intake
- did not provide their body mass index
- did not provide information about their smoking or alcohol use
- experienced atrial fibrillation (AF)
- had been diagnosed with CVD at the time of enrolment into the UK Biobank
After these exclusions, the scientists were left with information collected from 449,563 participants from the Biobank database and followed them over 12.5 years.
What Did The Research Scientists Find?
Drinking about 1 to 5 cups of coffee made with ground or instant coffee was associated with a significant reduction in arrhythmia compared with people who did not drink coffee. There was no reduction in arrhythmia if decaffeinated coffee was drunk. It seems that coffee reduces arrhythmia.
This infers that caffeine in coffee was the ingredient responsible for this effect.
Drinking about 2-3 cups of coffee made with decaffeinated, ground, or instant coffee was associated with a reduction in incident CVD compared to people who did not drink coffee. It seems that coffee reduces heart disease.
Drinking about 2-3 cups of coffee made with decaffeinated, ground, or instant coffee was associated with a reduction in mortality incident CVD compared to people who did not drink coffee. It seems that coffee helps you live longer.
What Was The Conclusion Of The Research Scientists?
The researchers concluded that…
In this large prospective cohort study, consumption of instant, ground, and decaffeinated coffee subtypes, particularly at 2–3 cups/day, was associated with significant reductions in incident CVD and mortality. Arrhythmia reduction was seen with caffeinated but not decaffeinated coffee. Mild–moderate coffee intake of all types should not be discouraged but rather considered part of a healthy lifestyle.Chieng and others 2022
Continue reading the research…
What is the difference between mortality and morbidity?
The research scientists studied the effect of coffee on mortality, but we also often read about morbidity. What is the difference between mortality and morbidity?
According to Healthline, morbidity is the state of having a specific illness or condition. Morbidity can refer to an acute (short-term) or chronic condition (long-lasting). Some examples of common morbidities (diseases) include diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
A morbid disease describes an illness that can reduce your lifespan.
How to Measure Morbidity?
Morbidity is estimated using prevalence or incidence.
Incidence shows the frequency at which individuals within a specific population develop a given symptom or quality.
Prevalence describes the proportion of the population with a given symptom or quality. It is calculated by dividing the number of affected individuals by the total number of individuals within a specific population. It is usually presented as a ratio or percentage (Hernandez and Kim, 2022).
Incidence is calculated by dividing the number of NEW cases within a designated period by the number of individuals within the population. When making this calculation, it is essential to remember to subtract the number of individuals already affected by the total number of individuals within a population (Hernandez and Kim, 2022).
How To Measure Mortality?
Mortality is related to the number of deaths caused by the health event under investigation.
Mortality can be communicated as a rate or as an absolute number.
Mortality usually gets represented as a rate per 1000 individuals, also called the death rate.
The calculation for this rate is to divide the number of deaths in a given time for a given population by the total population. To keep these values concise and for ease of comparison to other health events, this number can be multiplied by 1000 to reflect the “per 1000” rate of the target population (Hernandez and Kim, 2022).
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